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Examples of negative reinforcement:

    In the interest of simplicity, I have just picked one way in which negative reinforcement could be used in these examples.  Depending upon the exact circumstance, there could be variations on why the removal of something was reinforcing and there could be other reinforcers coming into play.  In cases where there was a definite aversive stimulus, I have written that the removal of the stimulus is what reinforces the behavior.  In the seat belt and buzzer example, there is a clear addition and removal of the stimulus. 

    But in many of the examples, I have written "removal of discomfort from" something.  The reason negative reinforcement works is because the removal of something is reinforcing, so perhaps it is unnecessary to write that it is the removal of discomfort, but I wanted to make the point that negative reinforcement works not just because we remove stimuli, but because the addition and subtraction of those stimuli has a definite physical or emotional affect on us.  Removing heat is only reinforcing if we are experiencing some discomfort from the heat and it could be that fanning is reinforcing because it removes sweat dripping (which I might find annoying) or because it cools us off, or for some other reason.   I think that saying fanning is reinforced by the removal of heat doesn't sufficiently emphasize that negative reinforcement works on a more personal level.

        1.  Loud buzz in some cars when ignition key is turned on; driver must put on safety belt in order to eliminate irritating buzz.
        answer:
behavior that increases is putting on seat belt, reinforcement is the buzz stopping.

        2.  Feigning a stomach ache in order to avoid school.
        answer: behavior that increases is feigning a stomach ache, reinforcement is avoiding school.

        3.  Rushing home in the winter to get out of the cold.
        answer: behavior that increases is walking faster, reinforcement is removal of discomfort of cold by getting home. Or it could be that walking faster is reinforced by getting home faster (removal of time spent out in the cold). Or it could be that walking faster generates heat and removes discomfort from the cold.

        4.  Fanning oneself to escape from heat.
        answer: behavior that increases is fanning, reinforcement is removal of discomfort from heat

        5.  Cleaning the house to get rid of disgusting mess.
        answer: behavior that increases is cleaning the house, reinforcement is removal of any tension, stress, discomfort associated with having the house be a mess.
        I could say it is the removal of the mess, but this is only true if the mess creates some discomfort for the person because it is this emotional reaction that makes removal of the mess reinforcing.

        6.  Cleaning the house to get rid of your mother's nagging.
        answer: behavior that increases is cleaning the house, reinforcement is removal of mother's nagging.

        7.  Taking aspirin to relieve headache.
        answer: behavior that increases is taking aspirin, reinforcement is removal of headache.

        8.  Removing a stone that has lodged inside the shoe while walking.
        answer: behavior that increases is stopping to take out stone, reinforcement is removal of discomfort

        9.  Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad.
        answer:  behavior that increases is leaving the movie theater, reinforcement is avoiding watching a bad movie.

        10.  Running from building when fire alarm sounds.
        answer:  behavior that increases is running, reinforcement is removal of noise of fire alarm.

        11.  Smoking in order to reduce a negative emotional state.
        answer: behavior that increases is smoking, reinforcement is removal of negative emotional state.

        12.  Turning down the volume of a very loud radio (only if the loud volume is unpleasant)
        answer:  behavior that increases is turning down the radio, reinforcement is removal of loudness

        13.  Scratching an insect bite.
        answer:  behavior that increases is scratching, reinforcement is bite becomes less itchy.

        14.  Rubbing itchy eyes.
        answer: behavior that increases is rubbing, reinforcement is eyes become less itchy.

        15.  Squinting or shading eyes from bright lights.
        answer: behavior that increases is squinting or shading, reinforcement is removal of discomfort from glare.

        16.  Closing the window to get rid of cold drafts of air.
        answer:  behavior that increases is closing window, reinforcement is removal of discomfort from cold drafts.

        17.  Turning down your hearing aid if there is too much noise.
        answer: behavior that increases is turning down your hearing aid, reinforcement is removal of noise

        18.  Turning on the radio to avoid or escape too much nagging.
        answer: behavior that increases is turning on the radio, reinforcement is removal of nagging

        19.  Giving in and doing what they want to avoid too much nagging.
        answer:  behavior that increases is compliance, reinforcement is removal of nagging

        20.  Doodling, daydreaming during boring class.
        answer: behavior that increases is doodling or daydreaming, reinforcement is removal of boredom

        21.  Deep breathing exercises to get rid of tension.
        answer:  behavior that increases is deep breathing, reinforcement is removal of tension.

        22. Being allowed to skip a test if you do an extra school project.
        answer:  behavior that is being reinforced is doing an extra project, reinforcement is permission to skip the test

        23. Not having to do chores if you study extra for a test.
        answer:  behavior that is being reinforced is studying, reinforcement is skipping chores (removal of additional work)

        24.  Going to the bathroom when your bladder is full.
        answer: behavior that increases is going to the bathroom, reinforcement is removal of pressure from full bladder

        25.  Using pressure and release with horses.  A specific example might be teaching the horse to turn its head from pressure applied to the lead.  
        answer: behavior that increases is the head turning, reinforcement is removal of pressure on the line.